Extraction of SSVEPs-Based Inherent Fuzzy Entropy Using a Wearable Headband EEG in Migraine Patients

Zehong Cao, Chin Teng Lin*, Kuan Lin Lai, Li Wei Ko, Jung Tai King, Kwong Kum Liao, Jong Ling Fuh, Shuu Jiun Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Inherent fuzzy entropy is an objective measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) complexity reflecting the robustness of brain systems. In this study, we present a novel application of multiscale relative inherent fuzzy entropy using repetitive steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to investigate EEG complexity change between two migraine phases, i.e., interictal (baseline) and preictal (before migraine attacks) phases. We used a wearable headband EEG device with O1, Oz, O2, and Fpz electrodes to collect EEG signals from 80 participants [40 migraine patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs)] under the following two conditions: During resting state and SSVEPs with five 15-Hz photic stimuli. We found a significant enhancement in occipital EEG entropy with increasing stimulus times in both HCs and patients in the interictal phase, but a reverse trend in patients in the preictal phase. In the 1st SSVEP, occipital EEG entropy of the HCs was significantly lower than that of patents in the preictal phase (FDR-adjusted p < 0.05). Regarding the transitional variance of EEG entropy between the 1st and 5th SSVEPs, patients in the preictal phase exhibited significantly lower values than patients in the interictal phase (FDR-adjusted p < 0.05). Furthermore, in the classification model, the AdaBoost ensemble learning showed an accuracy of 81 pm 6%and area under the curve of 0.87 for classifying interictal and preictal phases. In contrast, there were no differences in EEG entropy among groups or sessions by using other competing entropy models, including approximate entropy, sample entropy, and fuzzy entropy on the same dataset. In conclusion, inherent fuzzy entropy offers novel applications in visual stimulus environments and may have the potential to provide a preictal alert to migraine patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8668710
Pages (from-to)14-27
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020


  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • inherent fuzzy entropy
  • migraine
  • steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)

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