Extended instruction exploration for multiple-issue architectures

I. Wei Wu*, Jyh-Jiun Shann, Wei Chung Hsu, Chung-Ping Chung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In order to satisfy the growing demand for high-performance computing in modern embedded devices, several architectural and microarchitectural enhancements have been implemented in processor architectures. Extended instruction (EI) is often used for architectural enhancement, while issuing multiple instructions is a common approach for microarchitectural enhancement. The impact of combining both of these approaches in the same design is not well understood.While previous studies have shown that EI can potentially improve performance in some applications on certain multiple-issue architectures, the algorithms used to identify EI for multiple-issue architectures yield only limited performance improvement. This is because not all arithmetic operations are suited for EI for multiple-issue architectures. To explore the full potential of EI for multiple-issue architectures, two important factors need to be considered: (1) the execution performance of an application is dominated by critical (located on the critical path) and highly resource-contentious (i.e., having a high probability of being delayed during execution due to hardware resource limitations) operations, and (2) an operation may become critical and/or highly resource contentious after some operations are added to the EI. This article presents an EI exploration algorithm for multiple-issue architectures that focuses on these two factors. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previously published algorithms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number92
JournalACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Application-specific instruction-set processor (ASIP)
  • Customizable processor
  • Extended instruction (EI)
  • Instruction set extension (ISE)
  • Multiple-issue architecture

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