Exposure assessment and engineering control strategies for airborne nanoparticles: An application to emissions from nanocomposite compounding processes

Candace S.J. Tsai*, David White, Henoc Rodriguez, Christian E. Munoz, Cheng Yu Huang, Chuen-Tinn Tsai, Carol Barry, Michael J. Ellenbecker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, nanoalumina and nanoclay particles were compounded separately with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer to produce nanocomposites using a twin-screw extruder to investigate exposure and effective controls. Nanoparticle exposures from compounding processes were elevated under some circumstances and were affected by many factors including inadequate ventilation, surrounding air flow, feeder type, feeding method, and nanoparticle type. Engineering controls such as improved ventilation and enclosure of releasing sources were applied to the process equipment to evaluate the effectiveness of control. The nanoparticle loading device was modified by installing a ventilated enclosure surrounding the loading chamber. Exposures were studied using designed controls for comparison which include three scenarios: (1) no isolation; (2) enclosed sources; and (3) enclosed sources and improved ventilation. Particle number concentrations for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm measured by the Fast Mobility Particle Sizer and aerodynamic particle sizer were studied. Aerosol particles were sampled on transmission electron microscope grids to characterize particle composition and morphology. Measurements and samples were taken at the near- and far-field areas relative to releasing sources. Airborne particle concentrations were reduced significantly when using the feeder enclosure, and the concentrations were below the baseline when two sources were enclosed, and the ventilation was improved when using either nanoalumina or nanoclay as fillers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number989
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume14
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Jul 2012

Keywords

  • Airborne nanoparticle
  • Engineering control
  • Inhalation exposure
  • Nanoalumina
  • Nanoclay
  • Nanocomposite compounding

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