Exploring Regulatory Mechanisms of Atrial Myocyte Hypertrophy of Mitral Regurgitation through Gene Expression Profiling Analysis: Role of NFAT in Cardiac Hypertrophy

Tzu-Hao Chang, Mien-Cheng Chen, Jen-Ping Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wan-Chun Ho, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Yao-Kuang Huang, Wen-Hao Liu, Chia-Chen Wu

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Abstract

Background

Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR) predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown.

Methods and Results

This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD), and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC). We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated that "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway was not only one of the significant associated canonical pathways, but also the only one predicted with a non-zero score of 1.34 (i.e. activated) through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis molecule activity predictor. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Global Molecular Network analysis exhibited that the highest score network also showed high association with cardiac related pathways and functions. Therefore, 5 NFAT associated genes (PPP3R1, PPP3CB, CAMK1, MEF2C, PLCE1) were studies for validation. The mRNA expressions of PPP3CB and MEF2C were significantly up-regulated, and CAMK1 and PPP3R1 were significantly down-regulated in MR patients compared to NC. Moreover, MR patients had significantly increased mRNA levels of PPP3CB, MEF2C and PLCE1 compared to AVD patients. The atrial myocyte size of MR patients significantly exceeded that of the AVD patients and NC.

Conclusions

Differentially expressed genes in the "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway may play a critical role in the atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0166791
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • FIBRILLATION

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