Experimental and numerical study upon uniformity of impingement cooling with pin-fin heat sink

Wen Xiao Chu, Po Hsiang Chiou, Chi Chuan Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In this paper, the impingement cooling performance on pin-fin heat sinks is experimentally and numerically investigated with different outlet arrangements and pin-fin layouts. Compared with one-way opening arrangement, results show that the two-way opening arrangement can offer a much lower pressure loss (Δ p) due to shorter flow distance of airflow from outer jets. Meanwhile, it is surprising that the two-way opening arrangement still offers appreciable improvements on effective heat transfer coefficient (heff). This is because the fountain may shift toward the outer jets more rapidly with one-way opening arrangement. Yet the implementation of staggered pin-fin layout has minor improvement on heff. However, Δ p can be obviously reduced by 11.1% due to the more effective spreading of impinging airflow in radial direction. The heff value can be further increased by 8.8% when a smaller jet-to-target distance is applied. With priority consideration of hot spots in electronic cooling, the nonuniformity of local Nusselt number (S) is further studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. S approaches 18.5% when the airflow directly impinges on a flat surface with optimized jet array. Implementing pin-fin heat sinks can reduce the nonuniformity of Nusselt number distribution to fall below 8.0%. The nonuniformity of local Nusselt number can be further reduced to 1.8% by applying four-way opening arrangement and larger central jet at the same time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8753560
Pages (from-to)88-98
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020


  • Comprehensive performance
  • impingement cooling
  • nonuniformity
  • outlet arrangement
  • pin-fin heat sink

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