Low cost electroplated Cu-bump with environmental friendly Sn solder was developed for flip-chip applications. The seed layer used was Ti/WNx/Ti/Cu where WNx was used as the Cu diffusion barrier and Ti was used to enhance the adhesion between bump and the chip pad. Thick negative photoresist (THB JSR-151N) with a high aspect ratio of 2.4 was used for electroplating of copper bump and Sn solder. The Sn solder cap was reflowed at 225° for 6 min at N2 atmosphere. No wetting phenomenon was observed for the Sn solder as evaluated by energy-dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). The Cu-bump with Ti/WNx/Ti/Cu seed layer not only have higher shear force than the Cu-bump with Ti/Cu seed layer but also has higher resistance to fatigue failure than the Au, SnCu, SnAg bumps.
- Copper bump