The erosive wear behaviour of Al2O3-Cr3C2 ceramic composite with particulate Cr3C2 phase ranging from 10 vol% to 40 vol% was investigated. Experimental results showed that the erosive rate of the composite decreased linearly with increasing Cr3C2 content and was lower by a factor of 2-3 than that in high-purity alumina, the most widely-used erosive-resistance material. This finding suggested that Al2O3-Cr3C2 composites can be considered as candidate materials for erosion resistance applications. The erosive wear behaviour of the composites was well described by the theory developed by Wayne and Buljan by taking the hardness, fracture toughness, and microstructure of the composite into consideration simultaneously. The composite microstructure was found to have a profound effect on the erosive wear of the Al2O3-Cr3C2 composites.