Epigenetic regulation plays a critical role in glioblastoma (GBM) tumorigenesis. However, how microRNAs (miRNAs) and cytokines cooperate to regulate GBM tumor progression is still unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibits miR142-3p expression and promotes GBM propagation by inducing DNA methyltransferase 1-mediated hypermethylation of the miR142-3p promoter. Interestingly, miR142-3p also suppresses IL-6 secretion by targeting the 3' UTR of IL-6. In addition, miR142-3p also targets the 3' UTR and suppresses the expression of high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), leading to inhibition of Sox2-related stemness. We further show that HMGA2 enhances Sox2 expression by directly binding to the Sox2 promoter. Clinically, GBM patients whose tumors present upregulated IL-6, HMGA2, and Sox2 protein expressions and hypermethylated miR142-3p promoter also demonstrate poor survival outcome. Orthotopic delivery of miR142-3p blocks IL-6/HMGA2/Sox2 expression and suppresses stem-like properties in GBM-xenotransplanted mice. Collectively, we discovered an IL-6/miR142-3p feedback-loop-dependent regulation of GBM malignancy that could be a potential therapeutic target.