Enhancement of thermal conductivity with Cu for nanofluids using chemical reduction method

Min Sheng Liu, Mark Ching Cheng Lin, C. Y. Tsai, Chi-Chuan Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

315 Scopus citations


The enhancement of the thermal conductivity of water in the presence of copper (Cu) using the chemical reduction method is presented in this study. It is the first time that the chemical reduction method for synthesis of nanofluids containing Cu nanoparticles in water is reported. No surfactant is employed as the dispersant. The volume concentration of Cu-water nanofluids is below 0.2 vol.%. Without the addition of dispersant and surfactant, the thermal conductivity of the produced nanofluids reveals a time-dependent characteristic. The thermal conductivity is the largest at the starting point of measurement and decreases considerably with elapsed time. The results show that Cu-water nanofluids with low concentration of nanoparticles have noticeably higher thermal conductivities than the water base fluid without Cu. For Cu nanoparticles at a volume fraction of 0.001 (0.1 vol.%), thermal conductivity was enhanced by up to 23.8%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3028-3033
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue number17-18
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2006


  • Cu nanoparticle
  • Nanofluid
  • Thermal conductivity

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