Electromigration-induced Pb and Sn whisker growth in SnPb solder stripes

C. C. Wei, P. C. Liu, Chih Chen*, King-Ning Tu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Electromigration at 5 × 104 A/cm2 and 100 °C was conducted to grow composite Pb/Sn whiskers from SnPb solders, in which a Pb whisker grows first and then a whisker of Sn grows. In some cases, small Sn islands are embedded in Pb whiskers. The diameter of a composite whisker is <1 μm, which is much smaller than that of spontaneous Sn whisker growth on leadframes. The growth orientation of Pb whiskers was in the [110], [11̄1], and [112] directions. This investigation proposes that compressive stress generated by electromigration at the anode provides the force driving whisker growth. Therefore, accelerated tests of whisker growth at higher temperatures using electromigration are feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2017-2022
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Materials Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2008

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