Electromigration failure mechanism in Sn-Cu solder alloys with OSP Cu surface finish

Ming Hui Chu*, S. W. Liang, Chih Chen, Annie T. Huang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


Organic solderable preservative (OSP) has been adopted as the Cu substrate surface finish in flip-chip solder joints for many years. In this study, the electromigration behavior of lead-free Sn-Cu solder alloys with thin-film under bump metallization and OSP surface finish was investigated. The results showed that severe damage occurred on the substrate side (cathode side), whereas the damage on the chip side (cathode side) was not severe. The damage on the substrate side included void formation, copper dissolution, and formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The OSP Cu interface on the substrate side became the weakest point in the solder joint even when thin-film metallization was used on the chip side. Three-dimensional simulations were employed to investigate the current density distribution in the area between the OSP Cu surface finish and the solder. The results indicated that the current density was higher along the periphery of the bonding area between the solder and the Cu pad, consistent with the area of IMC and void formation in our experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2502-2507
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2012


  • Electromigration
  • solder joints

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