Electrically Injected GaN-Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with TiO2 High-Index-Contrast Grating Reflectors

Tsu Chi Chang, Ehsan Hashemi, Kuo Bin Hong, Jörgen Bengtsson, Johan Gustavsson, Åsa Haglund*, Tien Chang Lu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We demonstrate the first electrically injected GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a TiO2 high-index-contrast grating (HCG) as the top mirror. Replacing the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) with an HCG offers substantial thickness reduction, polarization-pinning, and setting of the resonance wavelength by the grating parameters. Conventional HCGs are usually suspended in the low refractive index material, such as air, in order to create the largest refractive index contrast. However, the mechanical stability of such structures can be questioned and creating free-hanging GaN-membrane on top of GaN is problematic. We have therefore fabricated TiO2-HCGs resting directly on GaN without an air-gap. No DBR layers are used below the HCG to boost the reflectivity. A VCSEL with an aperture diameter of 10 μm shows a threshold current of 25 mA under pulsed operation at room temperature. The lasing modes locate around 400 nm and are transversely electrically -polarized with a line width of 0.5 nm. The full-width half-maximum beam divergence is 10°. This demonstration of a TiO2-HCG VCSEL offers a new route to achieve polarization pinning and could also allow additional benefits such as postgrowth setting of the resonance wavelength.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Photonics
StatePublished - 15 Apr 2020


  • electrically driven device
  • GaN
  • HCG
  • high-index-contrast grating
  • microcavity
  • polarization selectivity
  • TiO
  • vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

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