We had demonstrated several novel methods to improve the luminescence efficiency of the GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The high-aspect-ratio GaN nanorods, formed by spun nano-spheres and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching, contributed to an enhancement in light output power and better light directionality. Nevertheless, the etching process would affect the electrical properties. We then attempt to rough the surface by synthesizing ZnO nanorods in liquid solution at room temperature. The LEDs with ZnO nanorods enjoyed high extraction efficiency and comparable electric performance than that without nanorods. At third part, we fabricate a high efficiency GaN-based LED by regrowth on SiO2 nanorod patterned sapphire substrate. It could improve the light extraction and internal efficiencies simultaneously.