Effect of the inlet location on the performance of parallel-channel cold-plate

Ming-Chang Lu, Chi-Chuan Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Scopus citations


This study numerically examines the influence of inlet locations on the performance of the Multichannel cold-plates. A total of five inlet configurations (namely I-, Z-,]-, L-, and Γ-arrangement) are investigated in this study. The velocity maldistribution and nonuniformity of temperature field caused by the fluid flow are shown in the simulation. For I-arrangement, higher inlet flow rate of the cold-plate shows more considerable maldistribution, and this maldistribution is decreased when the number of channels of the cold-plate is increased. The Z-arrangement and L-arrangements show a pronounced flow-recirculation that eventually leads to a much larger temperature difference along the surface of the cold-plate. Conversely, there is no flow recirculation in the ]-arrangement and a comparatively uniform flow distribution is seen. For the same average inlet velocity, I-arrangement has the highest pressure drop whereas ]-arrangement shows the lowest pressure drop. The I- and Γ-arrangement give the best heat transfer performance due to their impingement configurations whereas the Z-arrangement shows the lowest heat transfer performance for its dramatic flow recirculation and maldistribution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-38
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2006


  • Cold-plate
  • Heat transfer
  • Maldistribution
  • Parallel channel

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