The effect of a gravel subgrade on the hydraulic performance of GCLs is investigated. Laboratory test results show that the GCL specimens exhibit significant variation in thickness when compressed against gravel. The maximunn and minimum thicknesses of the specimen were about 20 and 3 mm, respectively, after consolidation by an effective stress up to 138 kPa. However, the permittivity of GCLs remained very low. The permittivity of both needle-punched and adhesive-bonded geotextile-supported GCLs decreased with increasing confining stress, regardless of the type of subgrade materials. In general, larger particles led to more significant migration of bentonite. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in the degree of bentonite migration between the two GCLs investigated.
- Geosynthetic clay liner