Effect of electromigration on intermetallic compound formation in Pb-free solder - Cu interfaces

H. Gan*, King-Ning Tu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

The polarity effect of electromigration on intermetallic compound (IMC) formation at the cathode and the anode in solder lines has been investigated. The lines were formed by flowing molten lead-free solder SnAg3.8Cu0.7 into V-grooves etched on (001) silicon wafers, and two copper wires were used as electrodes. The V-groove solder line samples, with width of about 100 μm and length of 600-800 μm, were used to study the changes in thickness and morphology of IMC forming at the cathode and the anode in the SnAg3.8Cu0.7/Cu system under different current density and temperature settings. The current densities were in the range of 103 to 104 A/cm2 and the temperature settings were 150°C and 180°C. We found that the same IMCs of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn formed at solder/Cu interfaces with or without the passage of electric current. The growth of IMC has been enhanced by electric current at the anode and inhibited at the cathode, comparing with samples without applying current. With a high current density of 104 A/cm2, the growth of IMC at the anode obeys the parabolic growth rule, which was not predicted previously. We observed that the IMC forming after the initial reflow had a scallop-type morphology, and it transformed into layer-type morphology in current stressing. This is similar to the result of solid state aging without passage of current. However, how it transforms from scallop-type into layer-type morphology is different from the cathode to the anode, which is also different from the way it does in solid state aging. This is because of the polarity effect of electric current and the existence of local current crowding due to the scallop-type morphology of IMC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1206-1212
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2002
Event52nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: 28 May 200231 May 2002

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