A three-dimensional (3D) single fluorescent particle tracking strategy based on temporal focusing multiphoton excitation microscopy (TFMPEM) combined with astigmatism imaging is proposed for delivering nanoscale-level axial information that reveals 3D trajectories of single fluorospheres in the axially-resolved multiphoton excitation volume without z-axis scanning. Whereas other scanning spatial focusing multiphoton excitation schemes induce optical trapping interference, temporal focusing multiphoton excitation produces widefield illumination with minimum optical trapping force on the fluorospheres. Currently, the lateral and axial positioning resolutions of the dynamic particle tracking approach are about 14 nm and 21 nm in standard deviation, respectively. Furthermore, the motion behavior and diffusion coefficients of fluorospheres in glycerol solutions with different concentrations are dynamically measured at a frame rate up to 100 Hz. This TFMPEM with astigmatism imaging holds great promise for exploring dynamic molecular behavior deep inside biotissues via its superior penetration, reduced trapping effect, fast frame rate, and nanoscale-level positioning.