Dopant activation in single-crystalline germanium by low-temperature microwave annealing

Yao Jen Lee*, Shang Shiun Chuang, Fu Kuo Hsueh, Ho Ming Lin, Shich Chuang Wu, Ching Yi Wu, Tseung-Yuen Tseng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Scopus citations


Phosphorus activated in germanium epitaxy atop Si wafer by low-temperature microwave annealing technique was investigated in this letter. Compared to the conventional RTA process, the temperature of phosphorus activation could be 120° C to 140° C which is an improvement in temperature reduction at the same sheet resistance. According to the SRP, up to 150° C reduction in maximum temperature at the same activation concentration (about 2 ×10 19 cm -3 ) could be achieved. Through adjusting the microwave power and process time, sheet resistance could be decreased while suppressing dopant diffusion. In addition, the inserted susceptor wafers above and below the processing wafer also suppressed the dopant diffusion and improved film roughness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5665750
Pages (from-to)194-196
Number of pages3
JournalIEEE Electron Device Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2011


  • Germanium
  • low temperature
  • microwave anneal
  • phosphorus
  • rapid thermal anneal (RTA)

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