The objective of this study was to compare gene transcription profiles of LM between two pig breeds, Duroc and Taoyuan, which display dramatically different postnatal muscle growth. We isolated LM from neonatal pigs, and the Duroc muscle length and mass were greater (P < 0.01) than for Taoyuan pigs; however, insignificant differences in the muscle fiber area and the percentage of fiber types were found. A human high-density complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray consisting of 9,182 probes was used to compare gene transcription profiles of LM between the two breeds. The results showed that the transcription level of 73 genes and 44 genes in Duroc LM were upregulated and down-regulated by at least 1.75-fold (P < 0.05) compared with Taoyuan, respectively. The strongly upregulated genes in Duroc pigs included those encoding the complex of myofibrillar proteins (e.g., myosin light and heavy chains, and troponin), ribosomal proteins, transcription regulatory proteins (e.g., skeletal muscle LIM protein 1 [SLIM1] and high-mobility group proteins), and energy metabolic enzymes (e.g., electron-transferring flavoprotein dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and ATP synthases). The highly transcribed genes that encode energy metabolic enzymes indicate a more glycolytic metabolism in Duroc LM, thereby favoring carbohydrates rather than lipids for use as energy substrates in this tissue. The over-transcribed genes that encode skeletal muscle-predominant proteins or transcription regulators that control myogenesis and/or muscle growth suggest a general mechanism for the observed higher rate of postnatal muscle growth in Duroc pigs. The transcription of one such gene, SLIM1 was more highly transcribed (P < 0.01) in Duroc LM at birth and at postnatal d 7 than in Taoyuan. The transcription of SLIM1 increased (P < 0.05) in Duroc LM from neonate through 7 d of age, whereas its transcription remained essentially constant in Taoyuan during this period. These results suggest that SLIM1 may be useful for the development of markers associated with the postnatal muscle growth of pigs.
- Gene Transcription
- Skeletal Muscle
- Skeletal Muscle LIM Protein 1