In this study, a real-time wireless embedded EEGbased brain computer interface (BCI) system was developed for drowsiness detection in a realistic driving task. Accidents caused by driver's drowsiness behind the steering wheel have a high fatality rate because of the marked decline in the driver's abilities of perception, recognition, and vehicle control abilities while sleepy. Therefore, real-time drowsiness monitoring is important to avoid traffic accidents. In this study, an embedded EEG-based BCI system which includes a wireless physiological signal acquisition module and an embedded signal processing module was designed, and a real-time drowsiness detection algorithm based on our unsupervised approach was implemented in the embedded signal processing module. EEG signal would be monitored and analyzed by the embedded signal processing module, and the warning tone would be triggered to prevent traffic accidents when the drowsiness condition occurred.