A unit hydrograph (UH) obtained from past storms can be used to predict a direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) based on the effective rainfall hyetograph (ERH) of a new storm. The objective functions in commonly used linear programming (LP) formulations for obtaining an optimal UH are (1) minimizing the sum of absolute deviations (MSAD) and (2) minimizing the largest absolute deviation (MLAD). This paper proposes two alternative LP formulations for obtaining an optimal UH, namely, (1) minimizing the weighted sum of absolute deviations (MWSAD) and (2) minimizing the range of deviations (MRNG). In this paper the predicted DRHs as well as the regenerated DRHs by using the UHs obtained from different LP formulations were compared using a statistical cross-validation technique. The golden section search method was used to determine the optimal weights for the model of MWSAD. The numerical results show that the UH by MRNG is better than that by MLAD in regenerating and predicting DRHs. It is also found that the model MWSAD with a properly selected weighing function would produce a UH that is better in predicting the DRHs than the commonly used MSAD.
- linear programming
- unit hydrograph