We herein demonstrate a new sensing method for phosphopeptides by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) using titania-coated gold nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of a glass slide as the sensing substrate and using UV-visible spectrophotometry as the detection tool. Titania has been known to be an effective substrate for binding with phosphorylated species. The detection principle is the shift of wavelength of optical absorption due to SPR of the gold nanoparticles induced by binding of phosphorylated species with titania on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by detection of tryptic digest products of β-casein and milk. Gold nanoparticles coated with thin films of titania, immobilized on a glass slide, can selectively bind traces of phosphopeptides from complex samples, resulting in a wavelength shift of the absorption band in the SPR spectrum with good reproducibility. The LSPR results are confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. The detection limit for the tryptic digest product of β-casein is 50 nM.