Design, fabrication, and modeling of a novel dual-axis control input PZT gyroscope

Cheng Yang Chang, Tsung-Lin Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Conventional gyroscopes are equipped with a single-axis control input, limiting their performance. Although researchers have proposed control algorithms with dual-axis control inputs to improve gyroscope performance, most have verified the control algorithms through numerical simulations because they lacked practical devices with dual-axis control inputs. The aim of this study was to design a piezoelectric gyroscope equipped with a dual-axis control input so that researchers may experimentally verify those control algorithms in future. Designing a piezoelectric gyroscope with a dual-axis control input is more difficult than designing a conventional gyroscope because the control input must be effective over a broad frequency range to compensate for imperfections, and the multiple mode shapes in flexural deformations complicate the relation between flexural deformation and the proof mass position. This study solved these problems by using a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, introducing additional electrodes for shielding, developing an optimal electrode pattern, and performing calibrations of undesired couplings. The results indicated that the fabricated device could be operated at 5.5 ± 1 kHz to perform dual-axis actuations and position measurements. The calibration of the fabricated device was completed by system identifications of a new dynamic model including gyroscopic motions, electromechanical coupling, mechanical coupling, electrostatic coupling, and capacitive output impedance. Finally, without the assistance of control algorithms, the “open loop sensitivity” of the fabricated gyroscope was 1.82 μV/deg/s with a nonlinearity of 9.5% full-scale output. This sensitivity is comparable with those of other PZT gyroscopes with single-axis control inputs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2505
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • Cross-axis coupling
  • Dual-axis control input
  • Electrical feedthrough
  • Piezoelectric actuation
  • Piezoelectric gyroscope
  • Piezoelectric position sensing
  • Quadrature error

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