In this study, the design and fabrication of a InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a composition-graded electron blocking layer (GEBL) are revealed experimentally and theoretically. It has been demonstrated that laser output performance is improved by using a GEBL when compared to the typical VCSEL structure of a rectangular EBL. The output power obtained at 20 kA cm -2 is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 by the successful reduction of threshold current density from 12.6 to 9.2 kA cm -2 and the enlarged slope efficiency. Numerical simulation results also suggest that the improved laser output performances are due mainly to the reduction of electron leakage current and the enhanced hole injection efficiency in the multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active region.
- electron blocking layer