Design and analysis of a millimeter-wave direct injection-locked frequency divider with large frequency locking range

Chung-Yu Wu*, Chi Yao Yu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this paper, direct injection-locked frequency dividers (ILFDs), which operate in the millimeter-wave (MMW) band, are analyzed. An analytically equivalent model of the direct ILFDs is developed, and important design guidelines for a large frequency locking range are obtained from it. These guidelines are: 1) maximize the quality factor of the passive load; 2) maintain low output amplitude; and 3) increase the dc overdrive voltage of the input device. A direct ILFD without varactors is designed and fabricated using a 0.13-μm bulk CMOS process to verify the developed model and design guidelines. A pMOS current source is used to restrict the output amplitude and to increase the dc overdrive voltage of the input device to achieve a large frequency locking range. The size of the input device is only 3.6 μm/0.12 μm and the measured frequency locking range is 13.6% at 70 GHz with a power consumption of 4.4 mW from a supply voltage of 1 V. In short, the proposed divider has the potential to be integrated into an MMW phase-locked loop system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1649-1657
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Volume55
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2007

Keywords

  • 0.13-μm bulk CMOS technology
  • Frequency locking range
  • Injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD)
  • Millimeter-wave (MMW) integrated CMOS circuit
  • Phase-locked loop (PLL)

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