Density functional theory was used to perform a theoretical evaluation of (E)-1,2-disubstituted ethylenes as dipolarophiles for the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The reactivities of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituted ethylenes were examined by estimating their activation energies. The calculated activation energies predicted that the most reactive species is (E)-1,2-C2H2(NO)2, whereas the least reactive is (E)-2-butene. Namely, it was demonstrated that 16-electron, 1,3-dipole reactants with more electropositive substituents in terminal positions and ethylenes that possess more strongly electron-withdrawing substituents facilitate 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. All of the theoretical results can be rationalized using the configuration mixing model.
- 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction
- Configuration mixing model