CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

Chun Ru Yang, Wei Siang Liao, Ya Hui Wu, Kaliyappan Murugan, Chinpiao Chen*, Jui-I Chao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-622
Number of pages12
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume273
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2013

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Breast cancer
  • Mitochondria
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Vitamin K3 derivative

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