In order to achieve copper wafer bonding with good quality, surface conditions of copper films are important factors. In this work, the effects of surface conditions, such as surface roughness and oxide formation on the bond strength, were investigated under different bonding conditions. Prior to bonding, copper film surfaces were kept in the atmosphere for less than 1 min, 3 days, and 7 days, respectively, to form different thicknesses of oxide on the surface. Some copper wafers were cleaned using HCl before bonding in order to remove the surface oxide. Surface roughness of copper films with and without HCl cleaning was examined. Since surface cleaning before bonding removes oxides but creates surface roughness, it is important to study the corresponding bond strength under different bonding conditions. These results offer the required information for the process design of copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration applications.
- Surface roughness
- Wafer bonding