Copper-airbridged low-noise GaAs PHEMT with Ti/WNx/Ti diffusion barrier for high-frequency applications

Cheng Shih Lee*, Yi Chung Lien, Edward Yi Chang, Huang Choung Chang, Szu Houng Chen, Ching Ting Lee, Li Hsin Chu, Shang Wen Chang, Yen Chang Hsieh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


A GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT (PHEMT) with Cu-metallized interconnects was successfully developed. Sputtered WNx was used as the diffusion barrier and Ti was used as the adhesion layer to improve the adhesion between WNx/Cu interface in the thin-metal structure. After copper metallization, the PHEMTs were passivated with silicon nitride to avoid copper oxidation. The Cu-airbridged PHEMT showed the saturation IDS was 250 mA/mm and the gmwas 456 mS/mm. The Ti adhesion layer plays a significant role on the gm and Vp uniformity of the Cu-metallized PHEMTs. The GaAs PHEMTs with TI/WNx/Ti/Cu multilayer have better noise figure and associated gain than those of the devices without the Ti adhesion layer. The fabricated Cu-metallized GaAs PHEMT with Ti/WNx/Ti/Cu multilayer has a noise figure of 0.76 dB and an associated gain of 8.8 dB at 16 GHz. The cutoff frequency (fT) is 70 GHz when biased at VDS = 1.5 V. These results show that the Ti/WNx/Ti multilayer can serve as a good diffusion barrier for Cu metallization process of airbridge interconnects on GaAs lownoise PHEMTs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1753-1758
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2006


  • Airbridge
  • Copper metallization
  • Diffusion barrier
  • GaAs
  • Noise figure
  • Pseudomorphic HEMT (PHEMT)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Copper-airbridged low-noise GaAs PHEMT with Ti/WN<sub>x</sub>/Ti diffusion barrier for high-frequency applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this