Compiler optimization on VLIW instruction scheduling for low power

Chingren Lee*, Jenq Kuen Lee, Tingting Hwang, Shi-Chun Tsai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Scopus citations


In this article, we investigate compiler transformation techniques regarding the problem of scheduling VLIW instructions aimed at reducing power consumption of VLIW architectures in the instruction bus. The problem can be categorized into two types: horizontal scheduling and vertical scheduling. For the case of horizontal scheduling, we propose a bipartite-matching scheme for instruction scheduling. We prove that our greedy bipartite-matching scheme always gives the optimal switching activities of the instruction bus for given VLIW instruction scheduling policies. For the case of vertical scheduling, we prove that the problem is NP-hard, and we further propose a heuristic algorithm to solve the problem. Our experiment is performed on Alpha-based VLIW architectures and an ATOM simulator, and the compiler incorporated in our proposed schemes is implemented based on SUIF and MachSUIF. Experimental results of horizontal scheduling optimization show an average 13.30% reduction with four-way issue architecture and an average 20.15% reduction with eight-way issue architecture for transitional activities of the instruction bus as compared with conventional list scheduling for an extensive set of benchmarks. The additional reduction for transitional activities of the instruction bus from horizontal to vertical scheduling with window size four is around 4.57 to 10.42%, and the average is 7.66%. Similarly, the additional reduction with window size eight is from 6.99 to 15.25%, and the average is 10.55%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-268
Number of pages17
JournalACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2003


  • Compilers
  • Instruction bus optimizations
  • Low-power optimization
  • VLIW instruction scheduling

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