Competition and stability analyses among emissions, energy, andeconomy: Application for Mexico

Hsiao-Tien Pao*, Hsin Chia Fu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


In view of limited natural resources on Earth, linkage among environment, energy, and economy (3Es) becomes important perspectives for sustainable development. This paper proposes to use Lotka-Volterra model for SUstainable Development (LV-SUD) to analyse the interspecific interactions, equilibria and their stabilities among emissions, different types of energy consumption (renewable, nuclear, and fossil fuel), and real GDP, the main factors of 3Es issues. Modelling these interactions provides a useful multivariate framework for prediction outcomes. Interaction between 3Es, namely competition, symbiosis, or predation, plays an important role in policy development to achieve a balanced use of energy resources and to strengthen the green economy. Applying LV-SUD in Mexico, an emerging markets country, analysing results show that there is a mutualism between fossil fuel consumption and GDP; prey-predator relationships that fossil fuel and GDP enhance the growth of emissions, but emissions inhibit the growth of the others; and commensalisms that GDP benefits from nuclear power, and renewable power benefits from fossil fuel. It is suggested that national energy policies should remain committed to decoupling the relevance between non-clean energy and GDP, to actively developing clean energy and thereby to properly reducing fossil fuel consumption and emissions without harming economic growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-107
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2015


  • 3Es
  • Clean energy
  • Lotka-Volterra model
  • Mexico
  • Non-clean energy
  • Sustainable development

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