Comparing the UV/Monochloramine and UV/Free Chlorine Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) to the UV/Hydrogen Peroxide AOP under Scenarios Relevant to Potable Reuse

Yi-Hsueh Chuang, Serena Chen, Curtis J. Chinn, William A. Mitch*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

128 Scopus citations

Abstract

Utilities incorporating the potable reuse of municipal wastewater are interested in converting from the UV/H2O2 to the UV/free chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP). The AOP treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) permeate often includes the de facto UV/chloramine AOP because chloramines applied upstream permeate RO membranes. Models are needed that accurately predict oxidant photolysis and subsequent radical reactions. By combining radical scavengers and kinetic modeling, we have derived quantum yields for radical generation by the UV photolysis of HOCl, OCl-, and NH2Cl of 0.62, 0.55, and 0.20, respectively, far below previous estimates that incorporated subsequent free chlorine or chloramine scavenging by the Cl and OH daughter radicals. The observed quantum yield for free chlorine loss actually decreased with increasing free chlorine concentration, suggesting scavenging of radicals participating in free chlorine chain decomposition and even free chlorine reformation. Consideration of reactions of ClO and its daughter products (e.g., ClO2 -), not included in previous models, were critical for modeling free chlorine loss. Radical reactions (indirect photolysis) accounted for ∼50% of chloramine decay and ∼80% of free chlorine loss or reformation. The performance of the UV/chloramine AOP was comparable to the UV/H2O2 AOP for degradation of 1,4-dioxane, benzoate and carbamazepine across pH 5.5-8.3. The UV/free chlorine AOP was more efficient at pH 5.5, but only by 30% for 1,4-dioxane. At pH 7.0-8.3, the UV/free chlorine AOP was less efficient. Cl converts to OH. The modeled Cl:OH ratio was ∼20% for the UV/free chlorine AOP and ∼35% for the UV/chloramine AOP such that OH was generally more important for contaminant degradation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13859-13868
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume51
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 5 Dec 2017

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