### Abstract

A low-voltage rail-to-rail voltage/current-controlled voltage-to-current converter, which is to first order insensitive to the threshold voltage variation, is introduced. This circuit can be used as a basic building block to construct low-voltage current-mode analog computational circuits, which can perform functions such as square-rooting, squaring, multiplication, sum of squares, difference of squares and etc. First, a low-voltage N-type V-I converter cell is presented. A complementary P-type V-I converter is used in parallel with the N-type V-I converter to achieve common-mode rail-to-rail operation. Moreover, to achieve a constant transconductance of the V-I converter, P-type and N-type bias control circuits are utilized to provide bias currents. Finally, SPICE simulations results are given. The variation of the transconductance is shown to be less than 5%.

Original language | English |
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Pages | 1337-1340 |

Number of pages | 4 |

State | Published - 1 Dec 1995 |

Event | Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE 38th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Part 1 (of 2) - Rio de Janeiro, Braz Duration: 13 Aug 1995 → 16 Aug 1995 |

### Conference

Conference | Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE 38th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Part 1 (of 2) |
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City | Rio de Janeiro, Braz |

Period | 13/08/95 → 16/08/95 |

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## Cite this

*CMOS low-voltage rail-to-rail V-I converter*. 1337-1340. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE 38th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Part 1 (of 2), Rio de Janeiro, Braz, .