The subsystem in a smartphone means its hardware components, such as the CPU, GPU, and screen. Accurately estimating subsystem power consumption of commercial smartphones is necessary for applicable to wide research areas. Current subsystem power estimation techniques are mostly based on power models, resulting in considerable errors for various types of power consumption behaviors. These include (1) asynchrony between the measured power consumption and the corresponding workload statistics, and (2) nonlinearity concerning CPU idle states, pixels colors of AMOLED screen, and GPU workload statistics. In this study, we propose a novel utilization-based, subsystem power estimation method for a smartphone, namely Clustering and Symbolic Regression (CSR) that takes these power consumption behaviors into account so as to increase power estimation accuracy. To address asynchrony, we cluster the subsystem workload statistics into synchronous and asynchronous groups by employing affinity propagation clustering. To address nonlinearity, we employ symbolic regression for fitting measured power consumptions with respect to subsystem workload statistics. We compare our approach with various power estimation methods, Linear Regression Model (LM), Genetic Programming (GP), and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The results show Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) reduction between 23.61 and 42.55 percent on the estimated power consumption of a simple (Nexus S) and complex (Galaxy S4) smartphone subsystems.
- clustering methods
- evolutionary computation
- power consumption modeling and estimation
- Smartphone subsystems