Characterization and modeling of the metal diffusion from deep ultraviolet photoresist and silicon-based substrate

Tien Ko Wang*, Mei Ya Wang, Fu-Hsiang Ko, Chia Lian Tseng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The radioactive tracer technique was applied to investigate the out-diffusion of the transition metals (Cu, Fe and Co) from deep ultraviolet (DUV) photoresist into underlying substrate. Two important process parameters, viz., baking temperatures and substrate types (i.e., bare silicon, polysilicon, silicon oxide and silicon nitride), were evaluated. Results indicate that the out-diffusion of Co is insignificant, irrespective of the substrate type and baking temperature. The out-diffusion of Cu is significant for substrates of bare silicon and polysilicon but not for silicon oxide and nitride; for Fe, the story is reversed. The substrate type appears to strongly affect the diffusion, while the baking temperature does not. Also, the effect of solvent evaporation was found to play an important role in impurity diffusion. Using the method of numerical analysis, a diffusion profile was depicted in this work to describe the out-diffusion of metallic impurities from photoresist layer under various baking conditions. In addition, the effectiveness of various wet-cleaning recipes in removing metallic impurities such as Cu, Fe and Co was also studied using the radioactive tracer technique. Among the six cleaning solutions studied, SC2 and SPM are the most effective in impurity removal. An out-diffusion cleaning model was first proposed to describe the cleaning process. A new cleaning coefficient, h(T), was suggested to explain the cleaning effect. The cleaning model could explain the tracer results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-820
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Radiation and Isotopes
Issue number5
StatePublished - 22 Feb 2001


  • Cleaning coefficient
  • DUV photoresist
  • Impurity diffusion
  • Out-diffusion cleaning model
  • Radioactive tracer technique

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