Causal reasoning from imperfect experiments and fuzzy information

Han-Lin Li*, Han Ying Kao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Imperfect experiments are experiments that deviate from the ideal protocol of randomized control. For example, when subjects in a randomized trial do not fully comply with their assigned treatments, which compromises their identification of causal effects. Pearl developed a linear programming model to derive bounds for the causal effects of interests. However, it is hard to improve the estimation by the linear programming model without further information. In this study, we show how referable knowledge and reusable information from related experiments can help improve the estimation of the causal effects. The referable knowledge from related studies or experiments can be introduced into the linear programming model as extra constraints. Since the referable knowledge involves fuzzy information and relationships, Pearl's linear programming model is extended to a nonlinear programming model and provides stricter bounds than the linear programming model does.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Fuzzy Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2004


  • Average Causal Effects
  • Fuzzy Information
  • Global Optimization
  • Nonlinear Programming
  • Soft Constraints

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Causal reasoning from imperfect experiments and fuzzy information'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this