Quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized in moderate to good yields through double oxidative C-H bond activation on azobenzenes. The mechanism of the highly regioselective reaction of 2-azobiaryls with alkenes to give orange-red-fluorescent cinnolino[2,3-f]phenanthridin-9-ium salts and 15H-cinnolino[2,3-f]phenanthridin-9-ium-10-ide is proposed to involve ortho C-H olefination of the 2-azobiaryl compound with the alkene, intramolecular aza-Michael addition, concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD), reductive elimination, and oxidation.
- C-H activation
- palladium catalysis
- CROSS-COUPLING REACTIONS
- RHODIUM(III)-CATALYZED SYNTHESIS
- CINNOLINIUM SALTS