Capture of activation during ventricular arrhythmia using distributed stimulation

Jason M. Meunier, Sanjiv Ramalingam, Shien-Fong Lin, Abhijit R. Patwardhan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Results of previous studies suggest that pacing strength stimuli can capture activation during ventricular arrhythmia locally near pacing sites. The existence of spatio-temporal distribution of excitable gap during arrhythmia suggests that multiple and timed stimuli delivered over a region may permit capture over larger areas. Objective of the study: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spatially distributed pacing (DP) to capture activation during ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: Data were obtained from rabbit hearts which were placed against a lattice of parallel wires through which biphasic pacing stimuli were delivered. Electrical activity was recorded optically. Pacing stimuli were delivered in sequence through the parallel wires starting with the wire closest to the apex and ending with one closest to the base. Inter-stimulus delay was based on conduction velocity. Time-frequency analysis of optical signals was used to determine variability in activation. A decrease in standard deviation of dominant frequencies of activation from a grid of locations that spanned the captured area and a concurrence with paced frequency were used as an index of capture. Results: Results from five animals showed that the average standard deviation decreased from 0.81 Hz during arrhythmia to 0.66 Hz during DP at pacing cycle length of 125 ms (p = 0.03) reflecting decreased spatio-temporal variability in activation during DP. Results of time-frequency analysis during these pacing trials showed agreement between activation and paced frequencies. Conclusions: These results show that spatially distributed and timed stimulation can be used to modify and capture activation during ventricular arrhythmia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-215
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2007


  • Capture
  • Epicardium
  • Optical recording
  • Pacing
  • STFT frequency analysis

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