Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection ((CD)-D-4) is an improved approach to avoid the problems of labor-intensive, time-consuming and insufficient accuracy of plate count as well as the high-cost apparatus of flow cytometry (FCM) in bacterial counting. This article describes a novel electrode-integrated printed-circuit-board (PCB)-based (CD)-D-4 device, which supports the simple and safe exchange of capillaries and improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the contactless detection. Furthermore, no syringe pump is needed in the detection, it reduces the system size, and, more importantly, avoids the effect on the bacteria due to high pressure. The recovered bacteria after (CD)-D-4 detection at excitation of 25 Vpp and 60-120 kHz were analyzed by flow cytometry, and a survival rate higher than 96% was given. It was verified that (CD)-D-4 detection did not influence the bacterial viability. Moreover, bacteria concentrations from 10(6) cells/mL to 10(8) cells/mL were measured in a linear range, and relative standard deviation (RSD) is below 0.2%. In addition, the effects on bacteria and (CD)-D-4 from background solutions were discussed. In contrast to common methods used in most laboratories, this method may provide a simple solution to in situ detection of bacterial cultures.
- IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY; RESISTANT BACTERIA; CAPILLARY; CELL; ELECTROPHORESIS; SEPARATION; WATER
- bacterial concentration; capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection ((CD)-D-4); capillary; E; coli; printed-circuit-board (PCB)