Autoimmune hypophysitis: Expanding the differential diagnosis to CTLA-4 blockade

Angelika Gutenberg, Melissa Landek-Salgado, Shey-Cherng Tzou, Isabella Lupi, Abby Geis, Hiroaki Kimura, Patrizio Caturegli*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Autoimmune hypophysitis is an increasingly recognized disorder that enters in the differential diagnosis of nonfunctioning pituitary masses. The differential diagnosis of these conditions is challenging because of similar clinical presentations and radiological signs. This review describes the essential features of hypophysitis and the other nonfunctioning pituitary masses. It also emphasizes a recently described feature of hypophysitis: its appearance with unexpectedly high frequency in patients receiving treatments that abrogate the function of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)681-698
Number of pages18
JournalExpert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2009


  • Autoimmunity
  • CTLA-4 blockade
  • Hypophysitis
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • MRI
  • Nonfunctioning sellar masses

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