The authors developed extremely selective etching for making an atomically flat, defect-free germanium fin (Ge Fin) structure. The etching uses a hydrogen bromide (HBr) neutral beam (NB), and they investigated the etching reaction differences between the HBr NB and a Cl-2 NB. No sidewall etching by HBr NB occurred at 90 degrees C, although that by Cl-2 NB occurred at more than 90 degrees C. This was due to the different boiling points of GeBr4 and GeCl4 as the reacted layer was formed by NB irradiation on the Ge surface. As a result, the Ge sidewall etching by Cl-2 NB occurred above 90 degrees C, whereas that by HBr NB did not occur at 90 degrees C. Additionally, nonvolatile bromide protected layers, such as GeBr4 and SiBrxOy, were deposited on the Ge sidewall and the SiO2 top surface in case of using HBr, respectively. Then, the authors succeeded in fabricating the atomically flat, defect-free Ge Fin structure with the extremely selective HBr NB etching. This result shows that HBr NB can more precisely achieve sub-10-nm scale atomic layer Ge etching for 3D Fin-type MOSFETs.