Assessment and Optimization of the Circadian Performance of Smartphone-Based Virtual Reality Displays

Tingzhu Wu, Shijie Liang, Lili Zheng, Yue Lin, Ziquan Guo, Yulin Gao, Yijun Lu, Sung Wen Huang Chen, Chun Fu Lee, Jia Rou Zhou, Hao-Chung Kuo*, Zhong Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The non-visual effects of blue light in displays mean that excessive use of smartphones can disturb the human circadian rhythm. Thus, the impact of virtual reality (VR) headsets, which are worn closer to the human eye, may be even more serious. In this paper, based on non-visual parameters, such as the circadian action factor (CAF) and circadian illuminance, the circadian performance of smartphone-based VR displays is quantitatively evaluated by an evaluation system we designed. Moreover, we investigate the improvements in the circadian performance of VR headsets resulting from three practical methods for reducing the blue light content. Finally, a theoretical method of shifting the green-light wavelength of the screen close to 555 nm to optimize the CAF of VR headsets is proposed. Overall, the results of this paper are of significant value in quantifying the effects of VR displays on circadian rhythms and improving the safety of VR headsets with regard to human health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8642876
Pages (from-to)358-367
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Displays
  • measurement
  • optimization methods
  • spectral analysis
  • virtual reality

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