We report on the use of photonic crystal surfaces as a high-sensitivity platform for detection of a panel of cancer biomarkers in a protein microarray format. The photonic crystal surface is designed to provide an optical resonance at the excitation wavelength of cyanine-5 (Cy5), thus providing an increase in fluorescent intensity for Cy5-labeled analytes measured with a confocal microarray scanner, compared to a glass surface. The sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is undertaken on a microarray platform to undertake a simultaneous, multiplex analysis of 24 antigens on a single chip. Our results show that the resonant excitation effect increases the signal-to-noise ratio by 3.8- to 6.6-fold, resulting in a decrease in detection limits of 6-89%, with the exact enhancement dependent upon the antibody-antigen interaction. Dose-response characterization of the photonic crystal antibody microarrays shows the capability to detect common cancer biomarkers in the <2 pg/mL concentration range within a mixed sample.