This Letter introduces an anti-interference single-photon light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system with photon-driven stochastic pulse position modulation. A photon arrival sequence with a programmable minimum interval time and trigger rate was proposed to trigger laser pulses, thus providing true nature-based randomness in modulation which is beneficial for achieving better anti-interference capability. In the proposed LiDAR system, two complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are used as an optical receiver and to generate a random trigger pattern of a pulsed laser. To prevent the range ambiguity problem, an interval-time filter capable of controlling the minimum interval time is integrated into the LiDAR system. A trigger rate controller capable of adaptively controlling the driving voltage of a light-emitting diode coupled with the SPAD responsible for the generation of the random trigger sequence is also integrated for achieving a precise control of trigger rate. Finally, a proof-of-concept demonstration was provided through experiments, and the obtained results were consistent with theoretical predictions. At an effective trigger rate of 800 kHz, an excellent suppression ratio of 56.2 dB has been achieved in the presence of a 1 MHz periodic interference.