The competition between order parameters, such as ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity, is one of the most fascinating topics in condensed matter physics. Here, we report intriguing anisotropic superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7 − x films induced by a multiferroic, BiFeO3, with periodic domain patterns. The anisotropic superconductivity was investigated by transport measurements and supported by phase-field simulations, and then the detailed local electronic structures were revealed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. We found that the oxygen redistribution in YBa2Cu3O7 − x modulated by the ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO3 was the key mechanism driving this anisotropic superconductivity. The presented heteroarchitecture of a high-temperature superconductor and a domain-engineered multiferroic provides a new approach to tune superconductivity and offers potential advantages for the design of future multifunctional devices.