Analysis and Visualization of Deep Neural Networks in Device-Free Wi-Fi Indoor Localization

Shing Jiuan Liu, Ronald Y. Chang*, Feng-Tsun Chien

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Device-free Wi-Fi indoor localization has received significant attention as a key enabling technology for many Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Machine learning-based location estimators, such as the deep neural network (DNN), carry proven potential in achieving high-precision localization performance by automatically learning discriminative features from the noisy wireless signal measurements. However, the inner workings of the DNNs are not transparent and not adequately understood, especially in the indoor localization application. In this paper, we provide quantitative and visual explanations for the DNN learning process as well as the critical features that the DNN has learned during the process. Toward this end, we propose to use several visualization techniques, including 1) dimensionality reduction visualization, to project the high-dimensional feature space to the 2D space to facilitate visualization and interpretation, and 2) visual analytics and information visualization, to quantify relative contributions of each feature with the proposed feature manipulation procedures. The results provide insightful views and plausible explanations of the DNN in device-free Wi-Fi indoor localization using the channel state information (CSI) fingerprints.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8721646
Pages (from-to)69379-69392
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Wireless indoor localization
  • channel state information (CSI)
  • deep neural networks (DNN)
  • fingerprinting
  • machine learning
  • visual analytics

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