Process and temperature variations have become a serious concern for ultra-low voltage (ULV) technology. The clock generator is the essential component for the ULV very-large-scale integration (VLSI). MOSFETs that are operated in the sub-threshold region are widely applied for ULV technology. However, MOSFETs at subthreshold region have relatively high variations with process and temperature. In this paper, process and temperature variations on the clock generators have been studied. This paper presents an ultra-low voltage 2.4GHz CMOS voltage controlled oscillator with temperature and process compensation. A new all-digital auto compensated mechanism to reduce process and temperature variation without any laser trimming is proposed. With the compensated circuit, the VCO frequency-drift is 16.6 times the improvements of the uncompensated one as temperature changes. Furthermore, it also provides low jitter performance.
- Subthreshold region
- Temperature and process variation
- Ultra-low voltage (ULV)
- Voltagecontrolled oscillator