An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory

S. C. Blyth, Y. L. Chan, X. C. Chen, M. C. Chu, R. L. Hahn, T. H. Ho, Y. B. Hsiung, B. Z. Hu, K. K. Kwan, M. W. Kwok, T. Kwok*, Y. P. Lau, K. P. Lee, J. K.C. Leung, K. Y. Leung, Guey-Lin Lin, Y. C. Lin, K. B. Luk, W. H. Luk, H. Y. NgaiS. Y. Ngan, C. S.J. Pun, K. Shih, Y. H. Tam, R. H.M. Tsang, C. H. Wang, C. M. Wong, H. L. Wong, H. H.C. Wong, K. K. Wong, M. Yeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 m water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the efficiency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.


  • Aberdeen
  • Cosmic-ray muon
  • Hong Kong
  • Neutron
  • Tunnel
  • Underground

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