Real-time in situ x-ray studies of continuous Pb deposition on [Formula presented] at 180 K reveal an unusual growth behavior. A wetting layer forms first to cover the entire surface. Then islands of a fairly uniform height of about five monolayers form on top of the wetting layer and grow to fill the surface. The growth then switches to a layer-by-layer mode upon further deposition. This behavior of alternating layer and island growth can be attributed to spontaneous quantum phase separation based on a first-principles calculation of the system energy.