Activation of rabbit TLR9 by different CpG-ODN optimized for mouse and human TLR9

Jin Liu, Congfeng Xu, Yi Ling Liu, Hanako Matsuo, Rebecca Pe feng Hsieh, Jeng Fan Lo, Ping Hui Tseng, Chiun-Jye Yuan, Yunping Luo, Rong Xiang, Tsung Hsien Chuang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are potent adjuvants that accelerate and boost antigen-specific immune responses. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is the cellular receptor for these CpG-ODN. Previous studies have shown species-specific activation of mouse TLR9 (mTLR9) and human TLR9 (hTLR9) by their optimized CpG-ODN. The interaction between rabbit TLR9 (rabTLR9) and CpG-ODN, however, has not been previously investigated. Here, we cloned and characterized rabTLR9 and comparatively investigated the activation of the rabbit, mouse, and human TLR9 by CpG-ODN. The complete open reading frame of rabTLR9 encodes 1028 amino acid residues, which share 70.6% and 75.5% of the identities of mTLR9 and hTLR9, respectively. Rabbit TLR9 is preferentially expressed in immune cells rich tissues, and is localized in intracellular vesicles. While mTLR9 and hTLR9 displayed species-specific recognition of their optimized CpG-ODN, rabbit TLR9 was activated by these CpG-ODN without any preference. This result suggests that rabTLR9 has a broader ligand-recognition profile than mouse and human TLR9.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-451
Number of pages9
JournalComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2012


  • CpG-ODN
  • Immune adjuvant
  • Nuclear factor-κB
  • Pattern recognition receptor
  • Toll-like receptor 9

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